In Vivo Capabilities

A broad range of techniques can be incorporated into studies undertaken using our sheep respiratory models.

These analyses can be customised to suit client needs, particularly with respect to target identification and endpoint analysis – such flexibility provides any number of study designs precisely matched to the questions you need answered.


Administration routes

  • systemic – IV, IM, ID, SC, peritoneal
  • local/mucosal – intranasal, oral, pulmonary (bolus/nebulised/aerosolised or dry powder; whole lung or targeted to individual lung lobes/segments)
  • cross-over design; sequential testing of different treatments/drugs/doses in one animal

In-life monitoring

  • body weight, body temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, O2/CO2 blood gases
  • acute and long-term toxicity assessments (local and systemic)

Lung function

  • lung resistance (RL), compliance, volumes, flow, EAR, LAR, AHR
  • continuous measures over time
  • lung function in fully conscious (unsedated) animals


  • repeated sampling throughout disease/treatment phase
  • BAL fluid; blood; lymph (via cannulation) collections
  • pharmacokinetics: multiple sampling (via catheters, cannulation); accurate profiling of serum/plasma levels
  • endobronchial sampling (epithelial brushings, tissue biopsies)
  • comprehensive immune cell/mediator analyses; cellular, biochemical and molecular analyses

Tissue damage/changes/repair

  • realistic, short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) analysis of tissue inflammation, remodelling, fibrosis
  • endobronchial sampling (epithelial brushings, tissue biopsies) throughout disease/treatment
  • whole lung analysis, imaging capabilities, and detailed histology/molecular analyses


  • tissue structure, cell distribution/structure – histology; histochemistry; immunostaining (surface, intracellular, tissue elements); confocal microscopy; electron microscopy
  • cell phenotype, activation, function – flow cytometry
  • proteins, cytokines, biomarker detection – ELISA; Western Blot
  • gene expression analysis – real-time RT-PCR; microarray; single cell profiling (Fluidigm system)

Access to world-class facilities and services

  • partnership with Monash University and Federation University
  • surgery facilities; technology platforms (including histology, microscopy, cell/tissue culture, flow cytometry, biomedical imaging, antibody and gene technologies)
  • indoor/outdoor animal holding facilities (capacity for up to 100 sheep); controlled environment for housing and feed in group pens or individual cages, through to paddock accommodation